The Mustangers by Nancy Marie: RESEARCH NOTES

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Chapter 1 Research Notes

Nevada City, California. ( 1849 to present day )
Nevada City was first settled in 1849 during the California gold rush. ( Nevada is Spanish for “ Snow-Covered”, a reference to the snow-topped mountains.) The town was incorporated on April 19th, 1856. In 1864 the word “ City” was added to the name to relieve the confusion with the nearby state of Nevada, and the town has legally been known as Nevada City ever since. The town consists of a Courthouse and City Hall, Carnegie Library, Miners Foundry ( the first manufacturing location of the Pelton Wheel.) National Hotel ( one of the oldest continuously operating hotels west of the Rocky Mountains.) Nevada Theatre ( California’s oldest original-use theatre.) South Yuba Canal Office. ( used during the period of 1857 to 1880.)
The Gold Tunnel on the north side of Deer Creek was the city’s first mine, being located in 1850. The first saw mill built in Nevada City was on Deer Creek, just above the town, in August, 1850, and was built by Lewis & Son, with a water wheel. In 1850-51 it was the most important mining town in the state, Nevada City being the leading gold-mining county in the state. In 1851 , The Nevada Journal became the first newspaper published in the town and county.

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Susanville, California
Susanville located on the Susan River, was named after Susan Roop, daughter of Isaac Roop, an early settler. It was first called Rooptown, and the present name was adopted in 1857. The Susanville US Post Office was established in 1860. Susanville was incorporated in 1900.

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Stockton, California
Stockton, California. was founded by Captain Charles Maria Weber in 1849 after he acquired Rancho Campo de los Francese.
At the start of the California Gold Rush in 1848, Europeans and Americans started started to arrive in the area of Weber’s Rancho on their way to the goldfields. As the head of navigation on the San Joaquin River, the city grew rapidly as a miners supply point during the Gold Rush. Weber built the first permanent residence in the San Joaquin Valley on a piece of land now known as Weber Point. During the Gold Rush, the location of what is now Stockton developed as a river port, the hub of roads to the gold settlements in the San Joaquin Valley. During it’s early years, Stockton was known by several names, including “ Weberville ”, “ Fat City ”, “Mudville”, and “ California’s Sunrise Seaport”. In 1849, Weber laid out a town, which he named “ Tuleburg”, but soon decided on “ Stockton” in honor of Commodore Robert F. Stockton.
Stockton was the first community in California to have a name that is neither Spanish nor Native American in origin. Stockton was officially incorporated on July 23rd, 1850. In 1851 Stockton received its charter from the state of California.

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Double Eagle
In 1849, in the wake of the California Gold Rush, the Double Eagle, or $20 gold denomination was added. This coin contains nearly a pure ounce of gold and were minted in large quantities; many still exist today and are used as bullion coins and command only a modest premium over spot price, though many dates are rare as well. The Liberty Head Double eagle was minted up until 1907.
A Double Eagle is the gold coin of the United States. The  “ Eagle ”, “ Half Eagle ”, and “ Quarter Eagle ” were specifically given these names in the “ Act of Congress ” that originally authorized them ( “ An act establishing a mint, and regulating coins of the United States ”, April 2nd, 1792 )
The first ever Double Eagle was minted in 1849. In that year, the mint produced two pieces in proof. The first resides in The Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC. The second was presented to Treasury Secretary William M. Meredith and was later sold as part of his estate- the present location of this coin is unknown.
The 1933 Double Eagle is among the most valuable of U.S. Coins, with the sole example currently known to be in private hands selling in 2002 for a staggering $7,590,020.

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Chapter 2 Research Notes

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Redding, California.
The first European settlement in the area was established in 1844 by Pierson B. Reading, an early California pioneer. During the gold rush, the area that is now Redding was called Poverty Flats. In 1868 the first land agent for the Central Pacific Railroad, a former Sacramento politician named Benjamin Bernard Redding, bought property in Poverty Flats on behalf of the railroad for a northern terminus. In the process the railroad also built the town of Redding, which was officially incorporated on October 4th, 1887.

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Grants Pass, Oregon
Early Hudson’s Bay Company hunters and trappers, following the Siskiyou Trail, passed through the site beginning in the 1820s. In the late 1840s, settlers ( mostly American ) following the Applegate Trail began traveling through the area on their way to the Willamette Valley. The city states that the name was selected to honor General Ulysses S. Grant’s success at Vicksburg. The Grants Pass post office was established on March 22nd, 1865. The city of Grants Pass was incorporated in 1887.

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Siskiyou Trail
The Siskiyou Trail stretched from California’s Central Valley to Oregon’s Willamette Valley, ( modern day Interstate 5 follows the pioneer path ). Originally based on existing Native American foot trails winding their way through river valleys, the Siskiyou Trail provided the shortest practical travel path between early settlements in California and Oregon.

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Applegate Trail
The Applegate Trail was an emigrant trail through the present day states of Idaho, Nevada, California and Oregon. Used in the mid_19th century by emigrants on the American Frontier. It was originally intended as a less dangerous alternative to the Oregon Trail by which to reach the Oregon Territory. Much of the route followed the California Trail.

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Roseburg, Oregon
Named for settler Aaron Rose, who established a homestead within the current city limits on September 23rd, 1851. Rose constructed the first building in what would become Roseburg, a rough structure made of poles and clapboards with a front room about 16 or 18 feet square; it was used as a grocery store, backed by a dining room and kitchen. Originally guest could use the floor of the front room  to spread their beds or were able to sleep out under nearby oak trees. His first structure served as a roadside Inn and Tavern for many years. Rose built a proper Hotel in 1853. Rose donated 3 acres of land and $1,000 for the building of the county courthouse, and the important buildings of Winchester were moved to Roseburg before 1860. Roseburg was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 3rd, 1872. Aaron Rose passed away in 1899.

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Ashland, Oregon
Settlers arrived in the Ashland area in January 1852. Abel D. Helman and Eber Emery built a sawmill in 1854, they and another settler M.B. Morris built a second sawmill, Ashland Flouring Mills, to grind local wheat into flour. The community around the mill became known as “ Ashland Mills ” A post office was established in Ashland Mills in 1855 with Helman as postmaster. During the 1860s and 1870s the community grew, establishing a school, churches, businesses, and a large employer, Ashland Woolen Mills, which produced clothing and blankets from local wool. In 1871, the post office dropped “ Mills ” from ashland’s name.

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Whitehorse Ranch: ( 1869 – to date )
Founded in 1869 by John S. Devine, a well-known 19th century cattle baron. It was originally the headquarters for the Todhunter and Devine Cattle Company. The ranch has been in the cattle business continuously since it was founded.
John S. Devine immigrated to California from Virginia in 1868, Devine decided to establish a cattle ranch in Southeastern Oregon, and joined W.B.Todhunter to found the Todhunter and Devine Cattle Company. The following summer, Devine and Juan Redon as head Buckaroo with a dozen California vaqueros along with a chuck wagon and a Chinese cook trailed a herd of 2,500 cattle from California to Southeastern Oregon while Todhunter stayed behind to look after the company’s holding in the San Joaquin Valley.
When Devine took up residence at the ranch, he became the first permanent settler in what is now Harney County, Oregon. Devine became a  powerful cattle baron, known for his aristocratic manner. He often dressed in the flamboyant Spanish grandee style including silver-studded leather riding gear. He usually rode a white horse as a symbol of the Whitehorse Ranch.

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Honey Lake, California.
Located in the Honey Lake Valley in northeastern California near the Nevada border. Toward the end of the civil war, the California Volunteer Cavalry used the route from Camp Bidwell ( Chico, California ) through the Honey Lake and Surprise Valley areas as a line of protection for Silver mine output.

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Smoke Creek Ranch
The Smoke Creek Ranch is one of the oldest ranches in Nevada, first settled by T.T. Kingsbury on May 30th,1857. During the 1800’s  it was owned by the Winters family of Washoe Valley. They even acquired the Shinn Ranch and George Winters planted the cottonwood tree grove still standing today.

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Chapter 3 Research Notes

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Infant Formula
In 1867 a formula containing wheat flour, cow’s milk, malt flour, and potassium bicarbonate was developed as the first infant formula for babies who could no longer breast feed.

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Defamation
Defamation,Calumny, Vilification, or Traducement is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of, depending on the law of the country, an individual , business, product, group, government, religion or nation. The origins of U.S. Defamation law predate the American Revolution.
Under common law, to constitute defamation, a claim must generally be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed. Some common law jurisdictions also distinguish between spoken defamation, called slander, and defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called libel.
False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading.
In some civil laws jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong.
A Libel is a malicious, false statement in media, a broadcast, or otherwise published words.
Slander is a false or malicious claim that may harm someone’s reputation.

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General George Crook. ( September 8th,1828 – March 21st, 1890 )
George R. Crook was a career United States Army Officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the Civil War and Indian Wars. During the 1880s, the Apache nicknamed Crook “ Nantan Lupan”, which means “ Chief Wolf”. Crook served in the Union Army from 1852 to 1890.

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Chapter 4 Research Notes:

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Fort Keogh

Fort Keogh is situated on the south bank of the Yellowstone river at the mouth of the Tongue river. Colonel Nelson A. Miles, commanding the 5th Infantry Regiment, founded the post I August 1876, in the wake of the Battle of Little Bighorn. Built in 1877 and in use until 1924.\

In 1900, the Infantry and Cavalry post at Fort Keogh became an Army remount station. Infantry troops were withdrawn from the fort in 1907. During WWI, Fort Keogh served as a Quartermaster’s Depot. The Fort Keogh Remount Station processed more horses for WWI than any other post, shipping them all over the world.\

The U.S. Department of the Interior took over Fort Keogh and as of 2012, it is home to the  USDA Fort Keogh Range and Livestock Experiment station. The station’s line 1 Hereford herd has played a key role in the genetic research of Hereford Cattle.

Fort Keogh Garrisons:
5th Infantry active from 1808 to present
22nd Infantry active from 1861 to present
2nd Cavalry active from 1836 to present
8th Cavalry active from 1866 to present
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Chapter 5 Research Notes:

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Umpqua Tribe, Cow Creek Band
The Cow Creek band was originated as a unified entity by the Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs on September19th, 1853. The Cow Creek band had villages along the Cow Creek, a tributary of the South Fork of the Umpqua River.

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Pendleton, Oregon
A European-American commercial center began to develop in 1851, when Dr. William C. McKay established a trading post at the mouth of McKay Creek. A United States Post Office named Marshall was established April 21st, 1865 and later renamed Pendleton. The city was incorporated on October 25th,1880.

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Chiloquin, Oregon
Chiloquin was the pioneer version of a family name Chaloquin, which was the name of a Klamath Chief who was alive at the time of a treaty in 1864.

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Yaqui
What Johnny tells Scott really did happen in Mexico. The Yaqui supported the French during the brief reign of Maximillian 1 of Mexico in the 1860’s. Under the leadership of Jose Maria Leyva, the Yaqui continued the struggle to maintain their independence until 1887. The war featured a succession of brutalities including a massacre in 1868, in which the Mexican Army to show power and reign fear in anyone who defied them, locked 150 Yaqui inside a church and burned them to death.
The Yaqui were impoverished by a new series of wars as the Mexican government adopted a policy of confiscation and distribution of Yaqui lands. Many displaced Yaqui’s joined the ranks of warrior bands who remained in the mountains carrying on a guerrilla campaign against the Mexican Army.

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Terreplein
The level space on the top of the Ramparts on which cannons were placed. Defenders of the fort could also fire down on an enemy and use the high position of the Terreplein to see approaching enemies.

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Rampart
A raised earthen mound or stone fortification surrounding a fort. It is usually surrounded by a Parapet.

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Parapet
A short wall of earth or stone used to protect soldiers and cannons at the top of the Scarp. The Parapet sits on top of the Ramparts.

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Scarp
The main slope of the outer walls of the fort. The Scarp is usually protected from attack by a ditch and other defensive works.  The wall on the other side of the ditch from the Scarp is called the Counter-Scarp.

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Counter-Scarp
The wall opposite the Scarp on the outside of a ditch. He Counter-Scarp was often lined with stone blocks and mortar.

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Chapter 7 Research Notes:

Red Bluff, California.
A post office called Red Bluff has been in operation since 1853. The community was named for the red bluffs along the nearby Sacramento river. It is located 131 miles north of Sacramento. It was originally known as Leodocia, but was renamed Covertsburg in 1853, then changed to Red Bluff in 1854.

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Volunteer infantry regiments
As prescribed by the United States Army Regulations, such regiments consisted at full strength of 10 companies, each of 97 men and three officers.
A Colonel commanded a regiment assisted by a Lieutenant Colonel and a Major.

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Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
Union Army Officer and commander of the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment at Gettysburg. One of only two General officers ever promoted on the field by General Grant.

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